Home

Outlander joan

Joan Fraser Outlander Wiki Fando

  1. Joan Fraser is the second child and eldest daughter of Fergus and Marsali Fraser, and grandchild of Jamie and Claire Fraser. 1 Personal History 2 Events of the Novels 2.1 The Fiery Cross 2.2 A Breath of Snow and Ashes 2.3 An Echo in the Bone 2.4 Written in My Own Heart's Blood 3 Personality 4 Physical Appearance 5 Name 6 Trivia 7 References Joan was born to Fergus and Marsali Fraser in the.
  2. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube
  3. Posts about joan written by outlanderspoilers. This week I have been—thank goodness!—busy writing. I went to a write-in for NaNoWriMo (National Novel Writing Month) with a friend this weekend and we used our extra hour writing until 3:30 this morning
  4. Outlander som e-bok. Om du hellre vill ha läsa en elektronisk variant av Outlander-böckerna så går det också bra. Outlander som e-bok finns att få tag på via Nextory. E-böckerna av Outlander är uppdelade på samma sätt som de fysiska upplagorna av böckerna vilket gör det lätt att veta vilken ordning du bör läsa böckerna i
  5. Jun 29, 2019 - Explore Joan Walmsley's board Outlander on Pinterest. See more ideas about Outlander, Outlander quotes, Outlander jamie
  6. Outlander är en brittisk-amerikansk dramaserie baserad på bokserien med samma namn av Diana Gabaldon.Serien är skapad av Ronald D. Moore och producerad av Left Bank Pictures. Det första avsnittet visades den 9 augusti 2014 på Starz. [1] Viaplay började sända serien den 10 september 2014. [2] Den andra halvan av första säsongen hade premiär den 4 april 2015. [3
  7. Outlander handlar om den brittiska sjuksköterskan Claire, som strax efter andra världskriget faller genom en tidsreva och hamnar i 1700-talets Skottland, där hon träffar högländaren Jamie

Outlander is a series of historical romance science fiction novels by American author Diana Gabaldon. Gabaldon began the first volume of the series, Outlander, in the late 1980s, and it was published in 1991. She has published eight out of a planned ten volumes. The eighth and most recent volume of the series, Written in My Own Heart's Blood, was published in 2014 Av en ren slump skrev Diana Gabaldon boken Outlander som sedan skulle bli en serie med nio böcker. Boken Outlander var egentligen ämnad för att förstå hur det går till att skriva en novell och för att se om Diana hade vad som krävdes. Det hade hon. Outlander böckerna läser du i följande ordning: Främlingen Slända i bärnsten Sjöfararna Trummornas dån Det flammande korset Snö. Outland Denim was founded as an avenue for the training and employment of women who have experienced sex trafficking. Today, we exist to eliminate exploitation and welcome 80+ employees from varying backgrounds of injustice. Through training, living wages, and education,. Outlander (TV Series 2014- ) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more

Outlander 308 jamie and joan talk about Claire - YouTub

Diana J. Gabaldon (/ ˈ ɡ æ b əl d oʊ n /; born January 11, 1952) is an American author, known for the Outlander series of novels. Her books merge multiple genres, featuring elements of historical fiction, romance, mystery, adventure and science fiction/fantasy. A television adaptation of the Outlander novels premiered on Starz in 2014 Outlander-serien, del 1: Främlingen. Del 2 Pocket av Diana Gabaldon. Pocket, Svenska, 2020-08-15 59. Köp. Skickas inom 1-2 vardagar. Fortsättningen på Främlingen Andra. Layla Burns, Actress: Outlander. Layla Burns is an actress, known for Outlander (2014), What Separates Us from the Beasts (2018) and Beyond the Lake (2021) Posts about Joan MacKimmie written by justfp. Here are + HQ (720p) screencaps from episode 4×07 of OutlanderDown the Rabbit Hole, that we made for you guys

Aug 12, 2020 - Explore Joan Ishimoto's board outlander on Pinterest. See more ideas about Outlander, Outlander book, Outlander jamie Outlander Recap: Sightseeing in 18th-Century Scotland. By Maggie Fremont. Joan, by listening to stories about the lout who broke Laoghaire's heart, braiding Joan's hair,. Outlander. 2.1M likes. Official Facebook for Outlander, a STARZ Original Series. Watch all seasons of Outlander exclusively on the STARZ App

joan outlander spoiler

By McKenzie Jean-Philippe Feb 15, 2020 Outlander's Sophie Skelton Refined Her American Accent While Watching Friends. She's now best known as Brianna onscreen. By Elena Nicolaou Feb 15, 2020 5 Facts You May Not Know About Outlander's Richard Rankin. And Sophie. Starring actors Caitriona Balfe (Claire) and Sam Heughan (Jamie), Outlander is exactly the kind of show you only need to watch once before getting hooked.The fifth season is premiering on February 16, and the show's first three seasons are currently available on Netflix.. But long before Starz adapted the books, the woman responsible for the Outlander world is author Diana Gabaldon, who began.

Outlander böckerna i ordning Allt om Fantas

  1. Köp Outlander-artiklar från ett stort urbud av kända fanprodukter hos EMP Toppkvalitet Premiummärken Högsta kundnöjdhe
  2. Outland Denim crafts premium denim jeans designed to bring the worlds of our seamstresses and our customers closer together. We source the finest raw materials from around the world while offering sustainable employment and training opportunities to women who have experienced exploitation
  3. Cast and EPs of STARZ's Outlander gather at PaleyFest NY 2018 to celebrate their show. Topics include: Jamie and Claire's domestic life after their many hard..
  4. r/Outlander: A subreddit for the Diana Gabaldon book series and STARZ television show, which returns February 16, 2020. Press J to jump to the feed. I think Joan is a perfectly fascinating character, what with hearing voices and being able to see death shadows
  5. Sitt stora genombrott fick Sean Connery med rollen som James Bond, i Agent 007 med rätt att döda 1962. Han spelade rollen fem gånger innan han hoppade av och ersattes av George Lazenby.När denne tackade nej till att fortsätta gick Connery med på att spela Bond i en film till, Diamantfeber (1971) under förutsättning att United Artists finansierade hans nästa film, Övergreppet.
  6. Outlander, ou Outlander - Le Chardon et le Tartan au Québec et en Suisse, est une série télévisée américaine créée par Ronald D. Moore et diffusée depuis le 9 août 2014 sur Starz [1] et au Canada depuis le 24 août 2014 sur Showcase [2] pour les deux premières saisons, puis en simultané sur W Network [3] depuis la troisième saison. Elle est l'adaptation de la série de romans de.

Outlander Joan Walmsley's collection of 9 outlander idea

Outlander - Wikipedi

  1. r/Outlander: A subreddit for the Diana Gabaldon book series and STARZ television show, which returns February 16, 2020
  2. Outlander (2014- ) Series Cast & Crew. Directed by (22) Writing credits (20) Cast (564) Produced by (39) Music by (1) Cinematography by (8) Film Editing by (7) Casting By (2) Production Design by (1) Art Direction by (11) Set Decoration by (2) Costume Design by (4) Makeup Department (138
  3. By McKenzie Jean-Philippe. Nov 18, To ensure that those fans can enjoy the fictional world 24/7, we've gathered plenty of Outlander themed gifts, from mugs to jewelry, shirts, and a bookmark. Mom (or any fan you know) will be delighted by these thoughtful presents. View Gallery 20 Photo

Outlander: Femte säsongen kommer 2020 Aftonblade

With season 5 of Outlander premiering on February 16, we've already got the opening credits theme song stuck in our head.; Particulary season 5's new intro, which includes the sounds of a choir. Below, we've detailed the song's name (The Skye Boat Song), lyrics, and meaning—plus, the scoop on whipping it together, courtesy of composer Bear McCreary This novella deals with Joan MacKenzie (Laoghaire MacKenzie's daughter by an earlier marriage, and Jamie Fraser's step-daughter) and with Michael Murray (son of Ian and Jenny Fraser Murray, elder brother to Young Ian Murray), in which Michael, a young and newly-widowed wine-merchant, takes on the responsibility of seeing Joan safely to the convent where she proposes to take up her vocation. Joan James Katherine (Young Jamie) Fraser Murray = Paul Lyle [Unknown] Carmichael Margaret (Maggie) Ellen Murray = (Kitty) Mary George (Geordie) Silvers Lilliane (Lillie) Michael Murray ≠ Key Married Out-of-wedlock affair Divorced Children Foster children Stepchildren ≠ ≈ = MacKenzie of Leoch An Outlander Family Tree gabalon family tree. The Space Between is a novella from the Outlander series. It was kind of cute because it gave you more information about characters that you didn't really know from the bigger books. Now this story is about Joan McKimmie, who is Jamie's step-daughter by the UGH Laoghaire. Sorry guys! I just did not like her in the first book nor in the show

Laoghaire MacKenzie | Outlander Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Outlander Watch: Je Suis Prest Je Suis Prest Outlander Talk; Show Talk; News; Rules; Writers Battle; Book Excerpts (SPOILERS Outlander: Dragonfly In Amber. Ésta es la segunda novela en la serie superventas de Outlander - ahora una nueva serie importante de la TV. Durante veinte años Claire Randall ha guardado sus secretos. Pero ahora regresa con su hija adulta a la majestuosidad de las colinas cubiertas de niebla de Escocia SPOILER ALERT: Do not read if you have not yet watched the fourth episode of Season 5 of Outlander, entitled The Company We Keep. After the horror show at the Beardsley

Outlander (book series) - Wikipedi

Den tredje säsongen plockar upp direkt efter att Claire reser genom stenarna för att återvända till sitt liv 1948. Nu gravid med Jamies barn, kämpar hon med utfallet av hennes plötsliga återkomst och dess inverkan på hennes äktenskap med sin första man, Frank. Samtidigt lider Jamie under 1700-ta.. Critics Consensus: Outlander is a unique, satisfying adaptation of its source material, brought to life by lush scenery and potent chemistry between its leads. 2014, Starz, 16 episode

Komplett läsordning för Outlander av Diana Gabladon

Outlander is a television drama series based on the Outlander series of historical time travel novels by Diana Gabaldon.Developed by Ronald D. Moore and produced by Sony Pictures Television and Left Bank Pictures for Starz, the show premiered on August 9, 2014.It stars Caitriona Balfe as Claire Randall, a married former World War II nurse, later surgeon who in 1946 finds herself transported. Outlander - Säsong 1-3 Box (Blu-ray). Samlingsbox med säsong 1-3 av TV-serien Outlander

Stanley Weber, Actor: Outlander. Stanley Weber was born on July 13, 1986 in Paris, France. He is an actor and producer, known for Outlander (2014), Borgia (2011) and Pilgrimage (2017) Joan Marie Sisi (born Outland) was born on month day 1929, at birth place, Ohio, to John Franklin Outland and Christine Theresa Outland (born Starner). John was born on April 13 1905. Christine was born on July 24 1903, in Holmesville, Ohio May 23, 2018 - Explore Jean's board Outlander on Pinterest. See more ideas about Outlander, Outlander jamie, Outlander book GO TELL THE BEES THAT I AM GONE (nicknamed BEES) will be my next book, the ninth book in my OUTLANDER series of major novels. It will probably be published some time in 2020. Current information about BEES is posted on my official BEES webpage, where you may access sample excerpts or Daily Lines, also. BEES will follow WRITTEN IN MY OWN HEART'S BLOOD, aka MOBY, the eighth.

Outland Deni

Behind the Scenes Photos of Season Four Filming in Culross

Outlander (TV Series 2014- ) - Full Cast & Crew - IMD

Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV GT S-AWC 2018 ***HYBRIDE BRANCHABLE*** ***SIÈGES ET VOLANT CHAUFFANTS*** ***CUIR*** ***ROCKFORD FOSGATE*** Jean Dumas Mitsubishi Alma vous offre un grand inventaire de véhicules d`occasion/usagé de qualité inspecté et préparé avec soin, avec un personnel entièrement dédié à votre satisfaction Outlander's fourth season is currently airing Sunday nights at 8 p.m. ET/PT on Starz. Image Source: Starz. Joan Jett, and Dua Lipa by Brea Cubit 22 hours ago Entertainment New 2020 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV SEL Special Sale! Get up to $7500 cash rebate, or more than $5000 for finance or lease! Call for more details! Valid until July 31st, 2020! We will accept any reasonable offer. Bring us any quote and we will work wonders! The 2020 Outlander PHEV has landed at Yonge North Mits.. Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV SE S-AWC 2018 ***HYBRIDE BRANCHABLE*** ***IMPECCABLE*** Le Groupe Jean Dumas vous offre un grand inventaire de véhicules d`occasion/usagé de qualité inspecté et préparé avec soin, avec un personnel entièrement dédié à votre satisfaction

Joan MacKimmie has appeared in the following books: Voyager (Outlander, #3), An Echo in the Bone (Outlander, #7), The Space Between (Outlander, #7.5), Se.. Outlander Season 5 Will Have a Lot More 'Intimacy and Passion' Between Jamie & Claire Caitriona Balfe, Sam Heughan, Sophie Skelton, Richard Rankin and executive producer Maril Davis dig into what. Outlander é uma série de romances de ficção histórica norte-americana da escritora Diana Gabaldon. [1] Gabaldon começou o primeiro volume da série, Outlander, no final da década de 1980, e foi publicado em 1991.[2] Ela publicou oito dos dez volumes planejados.[3] O oitavo e mais recente volume da série, Written in My Own Heart's Blood, foi publicado em 2014

Diana Gabaldon - Wikipedi

Serie Outlander-serien - Böcker Bokus bokhande

I säsong fyra av Outlander fortsätter historien om Claire och Jamie Fraser då de försöker skapa sig ett liv i Amerika. Vilket visar sig vara lättare sagt än gjort... Outlander / Säsong 4 - (5 DVD) - film - Ginza.s Sun psychic Joan Charles says Outlander star Sam Heughan needs to focus on romance as she looks at what lies ahead for this week's chosen cele The Space Between is a novella that was published in an anthology titled THE MAD SCIENTIST'S GUIDE TO WORLD DOMINATION, edited by John Joseph Adams. This is one of the orts—the short stories and novellas that come from (and are part of) the overall OUTLANDER series. This novella deals with Joan MacKenzie (Laoghaire MacKenzie's daughter by an earlier marriage, and Jamie Fraser. An Echo in the Bone is the seventh book in the Outlander series of novels by Diana Gabaldon.Centered on time travelling 20th century doctor Claire Randall and her 18th century Scottish Highlander warrior husband Jamie Fraser, the books contain elements of historical fiction, romance, adventure and fantasy.. First published and released in the United States on September 22, 2009, the novel. Outlander's Sex Scenes Are More Than Hot—They're Genuinely Feminist. It's incredibly important to show sexy, consensual sex on mainstream and popular shows, says Jean Kilbourne,.

The year is . Claire Randall a former combat nurse is just back from the war and reunited with her husband on a second honeymoon when she walks through a standing stone in one of the ancient circles that dot the British Isles. Suddenly she is a Sassenachmdashan ldquooutlanderrdquomdashin a Scotland torn by war and raiding border clans in the year of Our Lord.... Hurled back in time by forces. OUTLANDER (also published in the U.K. under the title CROSS STITCH) is the best-selling first novel in my Outlander series of books. It was first published in the U.S.A. in 1990. What Is OUTLANDER? Frankly, I've never been able to describe this book in twenty-five words or less, and neither has anyone else in the twenty years since it was first published Outlander has blown up a lot of the received ideas about sex on television -- how it's shot, who it's for, who it's made by and who it's about. The show's Sept. 20 episode, in which the two lead characters get married and have a lot of sex, was nothing short of revolutionary in its depiction of nudity and intimacy, and in its willingness to entertain the female point of view Outland Denim crafts premium denim to bring the worlds of our seamstresses and customers together. We source the finest materials from around the world while offering sustainable employment and training to women who have experienced exploitation Oct 29, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Joan Hughes. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinteres

Official Photos from 'Outlander' Episode 407, "Down theVeteran Comic Joan Rivers Dies at 81

See more ideas about Outlander, Outlander book and Outlander tv. Stay safe and healthy. Please wash your hands and practise social distancing. Check out our resources for adapting to these times. Dismiss Visit. Outlander Collection by Jean Sweeney. 234. Free online jigsaw puzzle gam Feb 11, 2018 - Explore Joann Hirons's board outlander on Pinterest. See more ideas about Outlander, Outlander book, Outlander tv Why we think it's a great listen: An all-time Audible favorite that mixes historic fiction, adventure, and romance with one of the most fascinating literary devices: time travel.Outlander introduces an exhilarating world of heroism and breathtaking thrills as one woman is torn between past and present, passion and love. In 1945, former combat nurse Claire Randall returns from World War II. Retrouvez tout le casting de la saison 5 de la série Outlander: les acteurs, les réalisateurs et les scénariste

Trucker är tillbehörsgrossisten och pickupspecialisten. Vi säljer insteg och och front bågar ljus fästen till alla bilar för att montera extra ljus LED fjärrljus. Till pickups såsom Nissan Navara, Mitsubishi L200, Ford Ranger, VW Volkswagen Amarok och Isuzu D-Max har vi tillbehör och styling som flak lock flak kåpor frontbåge ljusfäste insteg rörsteg montera fjärr ljus extra ljus. Descubre los 12 episodios de la temporada 6 para la serie Outlander

Layla Burns - IMD

Posting on behalf of Jean Brown ''On Tuesday, I went to our presbytery meeting, at Hopewell Presbyterian Church, in Huntersville, NC. Hopewell is even older than my church, having been established.. Outlander Cowl by Joan Janes. patterns > Joan Janes' Ravelry Store > Outlander Cowl. Pattern; Viewing as a guest user. What am I missing? details. yarn ideas. projects (27) comments (2) editing. details. Viewing as a guest user. What am I missing? details

Head of the Family (1996) - Movie Review / Film Essay

A timeless collection of denim designed for the modern man. Jeans, jackets, and shirts, Outland Denim have you covered. Shop now, buy better Musik, Film och Retro. Skivspelare, Högtalare och Hörlurar, Böcker och Spel mm. Snabba och säkra leveranser

Vis profilene til personer som heter Joan Outland Bli medlem av Facebook for å komme i kontakt med Joan Outland og andre du kanskje kjenner. Facebook gir.. In Season 5, Jamie Fraser must fight to protect those he loves, as well as the home he has established alongside his wife, Claire Fraser, their family, and the settlers of Fraser's Ridge High-Rise Skinny - 30 Leg Length. Harriet is our best selling style and will be the most flattering jean in your wardrobe. Made from premium comfort stretch denim, Harriet holds and supports you in all the right places and moulds perfectly to your figure, from its no-gape waistband to ankle-hugging hem

A seguir, é apresentada uma lista de personagens da série Outlander de Diana Gabaldon, começando com o romance Outlander, de 1991.A história se concentra na enfermeira do século XX, Claire Randall, que viaja para a Escócia do século XVIII e encontra aventura e romance com o elegante Jamie Fraser Seri Outlander adalah urutan novel multi-genre dan karya pendek yang ditulis oleh Diana Gabaldon yang menampilkan unsur-unsur fiksi sejarah, percintaan, misteri, petualangan dan fiksi ilmiah / fantasi. Bisnis waralaba tersebut telah diperluas untuk mencakup televisi drama seri Outlander pada tahun 2014 di Starz, sebuah novel grafis pada tahun 2010 dan album musik pada tahun 2010 yang disebut.

Joan MacKimmie Outlander Onlin

  1. You'll love these quick-knit, easy-to-wear, fingerless mittens that can be worn indoors or out, by themselves, or over a pair of thinner gloves
  2. Aug 25, 2017 - Explore Winifred Bruce's board Outlander on Pinterest. See more ideas about Outlander, Outlander book, Outlander series
  3. Diana Jean Gabaldon Watkins grew up in Flagstaff, Arizona and is of Mexican-American and English descent. She has earned three degrees: a B.S. in Zoology, a M.S. in Marine Biology, and a Ph.D in Ecology
  4. Gemma Fray. 10 yrs) / Brianna Randall (8 / Young Brianna (2 episodes, 2017-2018
  5. Spoilers for Outlander season 5 episode 7, The Ballad of Roger Mac, below. Murtagh, ugh! In the midst of a pandemic, Sam Heughan is trying to remain positive—the actor has just completed.
  6. Lookup Jean Outland's family members, old roommates, friends and more instantly. TruePeopleSearch.com has all of this info available to search for free. Try our people search, reverse phone lookup or address lookup, it's better than the white pages! More Records For Jean Outland

70+ Best outlander images in 2020 outlander, outlander

With each new season of Outlander comes new locales. The show's fourth season has transported Jamie (Sam Heughan) and Claire Fraser (Caitriona Balfe) to North Carolina in the 18th century. View Joan Outland's business profile as Office Administrator at St. Stanislaus Church. Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more Episode 284: Those darn sex dreams. by Ginger Wiseman, Summer Reynolds | Feb 10, 2019 | Diana Gabaldon, Podcast, Sponsored, The Fiery Cross. In this episode, we share your feedback for Outlander Episode 413 Man of Worth and begin our The Fiery Cross read-along with our discussion of Chapter 1 Happy the Bride the Sun Shines on Mitsubishi Outlander 2017 usagé d'occasion, Ext: Bleu, int: Noir, MODELE ES PREMIUM AWC TOIT OUVRANT CUIR$20,428. Jean Dumas Saguenay Mitsubishi - (Stock:CHI-19081A Outlander Series By Diana Gabaldon Signed Mass Market. Cast ashore in the American Colonies, Claire and Jamie Fraser are faced with a bleak choice: return to a Scotland fallen into famine and poverty, or seize the risky chance of a new life in a New World-shadowed by Claire's knowledge of the coming revolution

Outlander Recap, Season 4, Episode 7: Down the Rabbit Hol

San Juan San Juan is a card game based on Puerto Rico. The deck of 110 cards consists of production buildings (indigo, sugar, tobacco, coffee, and silver) and violet buildings that grant special powers or extra victory points. Cards from the ha La quarta stagione della serie televisiva Outlander, composta da 13 episodi, è stata trasmessa sul canale statunitense Starz dal 4 novembre 2018 al 27 gennaio 2019.. In Italia, la stagione è andata in onda sul canale satellitare Fox Life dal 9 novembre 2018 al 1º febbraio 2019.. Il cast principale di questa stagione è formato da: Caitriona Balfe, Sam Heughan, John Bell, Edward Speleers. outlander novel written in my own hearts blood joan mackimmie is on her way to paris to take up her vocation as a nun the space between an outlander novella kindle edition by gabaldon diana download outlander novella the outlander series audio cd september 1 2014 by diana gabaldon author visi

Your Afternoon Man: Michael Fassbender in T: The New YorkUnfug It Up: Heather Graham (And K‘Hawaii Five-0’ Season 9 Premiere Pays Homage to the 1968Melissa Joan Hart & Sean Astin to Headline Netflix SitcomSophie Skelton – Newport Beach Film Festival Honours in
  • Fillers uppsala.
  • Wurlitzer musikbox lyric.
  • Bevingad häst start.
  • 12v hydraulaggregat.
  • Akademibokhandeln göteborg backaplan.
  • Bilverkstad skellefteå.
  • När kommer lönen denna månad.
  • Stämpla synonym.
  • Margaux dietz förlossningsberättelse.
  • Saxon band.
  • Questra erfahrungen 2017.
  • Dm fotoqualität.
  • Omprövning av betyg universitet.
  • Koloni gävle till salu.
  • Vistaprint rabattkod fri frakt.
  • Avsluta unicef.
  • Wohnungen zwickau eckersbach ggz.
  • Wer über sich selbst lachen kann wird am ehesten ernst genommen.
  • Rörelseresultat ebitda.
  • Radio x3m.
  • Swiss clinic skin renewal.
  • Fotografier på aluminium.
  • Thuis inpakken voor bedrijven.
  • Agria självriskperiod.
  • Handelsbalans definition.
  • Begagnade kakelugnar skåne.
  • Stöttåligt skal iphone 7.
  • Kompletteringar av den tillfälliga lagen för uppehållstillstånd rörande studier på gymnasienivå.
  • Frühschoppen ideen.
  • Barnvakt tips på aktiviteter.
  • Nackrosetten latin.
  • Nordic invasion rabatt.
  • Jourveterinär norrtälje.
  • Mackenzie foy interstellar.
  • Dsb transport.
  • Wikimini hamster.
  • Sims 4 schnell viel geld.
  • Victoria pizzeria bromölla.
  • Dreamfilm dumma mej.
  • Seniorakademin lund.
  • Ikea szafy garderoby.